This course explores issues concerning the ethical distribution of scarce resources, with a focus on healthcare settings. It brings together theoretical reasoning in normative ethics with concrete concerns in bioethics. It examines theoretical literature (by Broome, Kamm, Scanlon, Temkin, and others) on issues surrounding the aggregation of goods and their fair distribution. For example, is there a number of mild headaches such that preventing them is just as good (or better) than saving a person’s life? How ought we to determine whose life to save when it is not possible to save everyone who has a claim to be saved? The course couples these theoretical investigations with consideration of concrete proposals regarding how to ration healthcare resources, for example, organs for transplantation, HIV medicines, and flu vaccine.